European Trade Union Institute, ETUI.

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Policy Briefs

Short, critical and policy-oriented analysis on topical issues intended for a non-specialist audience, including European-level decision-makers, think-tanks and NGOs.
Comments on and proposals for articles are welcome.
Proposals for articles should be between 2-3,000 words and be policy orientated.

The platform economy and the disruption of the employment relationship

Jan Drahokoupil (ETUI)

2016
platform economy and employment

This policy brief considers the impact of online platforms on labour markets and on the employment relationship in particular.

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The meaning of extension for the stability of collective bargaining in Europe

Thorsten Schulten (WSI)

2016
collective bargaining extension

The objective of this policy brief is to: (1) briefly review the different forms, the spread and current practice of extension mechanisms across Europe; (2) discuss the relationship between extension mechanisms, collective bargaining coverage and union density; and finally (3) formulate political recommendations of how to ensure the future of multi-employer bargaining through extension procedures.

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A new ISO standard for occupational health and safety management systems: is this the right approach?

Hugh Robertson (TUC, United Kingdom)

2016

This policy brief looks at the new ISO45001 draft international standard for occupational safety and health (OSH) management systems.

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Extending solidarity rather than bargaining concessions: the IG Metall campaign for agency workers

Chiara Benassi (University of London)

2016
trade unions, collective bargaining

Concession bargaining at at workplace level has been spreading in the US and across Europe. It is often framed as a response to organisational or economic crises and therefore as a useful instrument for dealing with employment restructuring in the short term. This policy brief examines the practice of concession bargaining taking as its starting point a campaign on agency work conducted by the German metalworkers union IG Metall.

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The right and duty of European Works Councils to report back to the workforce: broad uptake, little specificity

Romuald Jagodzinski and Stan De Spiegelaere (ETUI)

2016
European Works Councils reporting

This policy brief examines if and how the reformulated obligation in the Recast European Works Council Directive to report back found its way into EWC agreements by looking at survey data, results of large-scale agreement analysis and by providing examples of clauses in which this obligation is reflected.

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How to avert the risk of deflation in Europe: rethinking the policy mix and European economic governance

Sotiria Theodoropoulou (ETUI)

2015
deflation, economic policy, austerity

This policy brief discusses the risks of deflation for the European economy. It critically evaluates the European economic governance for not having averted this risk...

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The international standardisation arena and the civil society participation stakes: results of the INTERNORM project

Christophe Hauert, Danielle Bütschi, Jean-Christophe Graz, Marc Audétat et Alain Kaufmann

2015

International standards are playing an increasingly important role in market governance and often have a direct impact on health, safety and the environment.

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The ‘variable geometry’ approach to ‘better legislation’

Éric Van den Abeele

2015
Better regulation policy brief

This Policy Brief takes the measure of the EU Commission's ‘better legislation’ programme, attempting not only to identify its general thrust but also to reveal its inner contradictions.

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The Golden Rule of Public Investment: protecting fiscal leeway and public infrastructure in the EU

Georg Feigl (Chamber of Labour, Vienna) and Achim Truger (Macroeconomic Policy Institute, Düsseldorf)

2015
golden rule of public investment

This policy brief proposes to implement the 'Golden Rule of Public Investment' , a rule which states that net public investments - increases of the public and/or social capital stock providing future benefits, should be financed by debt, on other words, excluded from balanced-budget rules. The authors make the case for the introduction of such a rule at European and member state level and answer some of the arguments used against the application of such a rule.

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Musculoskeletal disorders: a major challenge for occupational risk prevention in Europe

Yves Roquelaure (Ergonomics and Epidemiology Laboratory for Occupational Health)

2015
musculoskeletal disorders, health and safety

This policy brief looks at the work-related causes behind musculoskeletal disorders and formulates policy recommendations for the prevention of these occupational health risks.

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Participation rights in practice: what are the power bases of worker representatives at the board ?

Aline Conchon (ETUI), Jeremy Waddington (ETUI)

2015
work democracy worker representation

This Policy Brief outlines some of the key findings of the first-ever questionnaire-based survey of worker representatives who serve on company boards in 16 European countries and in European Companies (SEs). It demonstrates that necessary conditions must be met for board-level worker representatives to be able to exert real power over corporate strategic decisions.

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Organising hyper-mobile transnational construction workers

Sonila Danaj and Markku Sippola (University of Jyväskylä, Finland)

2015

This Policy Brief outlines the main strategies employed by trade unions to organise migrant workers, with a particular focus on hyper-mobile posted workers. The Policy Brief is based on empirical qualitative data collected within the framework of two research projects in Finland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.

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What social face of the new EU trade agreements? Beyond the ‘soft’ approach

Lore Van den Putte, Jan Orbie, Fabienne Bossuyt, Deborah Martens and Ferdi De Ville (Centre for EU Studies (CEUS), Ghent University, Belgium)

2015
trade

This Policy Brief outlines a different approach that the EU can use in demanding respect for labour rights in its trade agreement with third countries. It shows the need to develop a thorough, systematic and inclusive monitoring process involving civil society while developing an holistic approach for the promotion of labour rights going beyond EU’s trade relations.

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Social dumping at work: uses and abuses of the posted work framework in the EU

Lisa Berntsen, Tilburg University, the Netherlands and Nathan Lillie, University of Juväskylä, Finland

2015
social dumping

This Policy Brief demonstrates how legal ambiguities in the EU’s regulatory framework on worker mobility between EU member states allow companies to circumvent social regulations in order to save on labour costs.

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Reducing the numbers of occupational victims requires an alternative prevention policy

Wim Eshuis, De Burcht

2015

The European legislation on occupational health and safety has failed to achieve any substantial reduction in the incidence of work-related accidents and disease.

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Job quality and women’s labour market participation

Agnieszka Piasna, ETUI and Anke Plagnol, Department of Psychology, City University London

2015

This Policy Brief provides an overview of female employment in the EU and of how it is affected by a transition to motherhood, as well as of recent policies devised to remedy the post-2008 unemployment crisis.

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EU REFIT machinery 'cutting red tape' at the cost of the acquis communautaire

Isabelle Schömann (ETUI)

2015
REFIT better regulation

This policy brief describes the historical and political background of the EU's 'Regulatory Fitness and Performance' (REFIT)' programme, its mechanisms and instruments as well as challenges of this exercise in 'better regulation' for Social Europe.

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Community organising and the implications for union revitalisation

Jane Holgate, University of Leeds Business School UK

2015
Unions and community organising

Faced with changing labour markets, new employment patterns (e.g. temporary and precarious work) and declining union power and membership, trade unions need to (re)consider the ways in which they organise and mobilise workers.

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Juncker's investment plan: a start, but we need more

Martin Myant (ETUI)

2015

This policy brief analyses the recently launched EU plan for strategic investments pointing to several shortcomings that will significantly limit its positive effects.

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TTIP: fast track to deregulation and lower health and safety protection for EU workers

Aïda Ponce Del Castillo (ETUI)

2015
TTIP policy brief

This Policy Brief focuses on how EU occupational health and safety may be affected by the Transatlantic Trade Investment Partnership (TTIP). It draws attention to the connections between the TTIP and the REFIT programme which according to the author share a common objective, namely, to place deregulation high on the agenda.

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Transnational flexibility and ‘shareholder capitalism’: a case for extending EWC competences to cover flexibility

Valeria Pulignano

2015

This Policy Brief argues the need to extend the entitlement of employee participation bodies at the European level to cover corporate strategies of transnational flexibility.

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Healthcare reforms and the crisis

Furio Stamati and Rita Baeten (OSE)

2014

This policy brief identifies the need for a more consistent healthcare agenda on the part of the EU and for more transparent and accountable procedures for its involvement in this field, taking due account of the basic objectives of healthcare systems.

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Validation of non-formal and informal learning: new opportunities for all?

Nicolas Fleury, research associate Centre Etudes & Prospective, Groupe Alpha

2014

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Individualisation of the work relationship: a challenge for trade unions

Philippe Davezies

2014
working conditions policy brief

This Policy Brief looks at changes in work organisation, the ways in which these lead to an individualisation of the work relationship and the negative consequences arising from the contradictions between how workers see their job and how management perceives it

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Letter-box companies and abuse of the posting rules: how the primacy of economic freedoms and weak enforcement give rise to social dumping

Jan Cremers (University of Amsterdam)

2014
social dumping policy brief Cremers

his policy brief demonstrates how the emphasis on the primacy of economic freedoms has negatively affected the application of EU social security rules and the working conditions of posted workers

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The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: exaggerated hopes from the liberalising agenda?

Martin Myant (ETUI)

2014

This policy brief provides evidence that the economic benefits of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) have been seriously exaggerated

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Implementation of enforcement provisions of the European Works Councils Recast Directive: are sanctions really ‘effective, proportionate and dissuasive’?

Romuald Jagodzinski (ETUI)

2014

This policy brief shows the importance of proper implementation of sanctions for the overall efficiency and implementation of the goals of the EWC Recast Directive.

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Back on the agenda: a European minimum wage standard

Thorsten Schulten (WSI) and Torsten Müller (ETUI)

2014

This policy brief provides a brief but systematic overview of the different minimum wage regimes currently found in the EU as a basis for formulating some potential contours of a European minimum wage policy.

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Collective labour law under attack: how anti-crisis measures dismantle workers' collective rights

Isabelle Schömann (ETUI)

2014
collective labour law under attack

This policy brief demonstrates how the EU's financial and economic crisis has been used to attack European collective labour law and identifies ways out of this crisis of labour law by looking at possible litigation strategies and recourse to international instances.

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Negotiating flexibility and security in multinationals in Europe: the case for extending European Framework Agreements

Valeria Pulignano (KU Leuven)

2014
Flexibility and security in multinationals

This policy brief presents lessons from comparative research on collective bargaining on flexibility and security. It takes as its starting point field work undertaken in two EU- and two US-based manufacturing subsidiaries in Germany, Belgium, Italy and the United Kingdom.

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Varieties of social dumping in an open labour market: the Irish experience of large-scale immigration and the regulation of employment standards

Torben Krings, Assistant Professor Department of Economic and Organisational Sociology, Kepler Univ, Linz, Austria

2014

This policy brief examines the impact of recent immigration on employment conditions in two sectors, namely, construction and hospitality, in Ireland

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Reforming pensions: the limits of diversification

Jan Drahokoupil (University of Mannheim and ETUI) and Stefan Domonkos (University of Mannheim)

2013

The assumed benefits of diversification – reducing the reliance of individuals on one form of retirement insurance – currently inform policy advice on pension reforms. The diversification argument also often justifies reforms of old age pensions,
including their privatization. However, the merits of diversification, particularly if pursued through privatization, are questionable, as the authors of this Policy Brief show. They make three points in their argumentation.

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The European governance of education: progresses and challenges

Chiara Agostini (University of Milan) and David Natali (OSE and University of Bologna)

2013

In recent decades the European Union (EU) has put increased emphasis on education and training as a strategic area able to contribute to economic development and a more inclusive society. Soft governance has contributed to progress in attempts to coordinate national policies and institutions. However, national performances and trends are still far from the targets set by the EU.

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Working in multinationals and domestic firms compared - myths and realities

Maarten van Klaveren and Kea Tijdens (AIAS, Amsterdam), Denis Gregory (TURU, Oxford)

2013

The three authors of this policy brief investigated whether multinational enterprises (MNEs) offer better terms and conditions for employment than domestic (non-NME) firms. Using data from the WageIndicator web survey (www.wageindicator.org), the researchers compared wages, working conditions and job quality, working hours, training possibilities, and industrial relations at the workplace in NMEs and domestic companies.

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Financial transaction taxes in the EU

Andreas Botsch (ETUI)

2012

In this Policy brief, ETUI senior researcher Andreas Botsch focuses on the state of play and the rationale for such a European Financial Transaction Tax (FTT). Not only would such a tax stabilise financial markets, it would also generate revenues to offset the costs of the financial crisis by paying partly for the burdens taken on by governments who had to bailout the failing banks.

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Are employee participation rights under pressure? Trends at national and EU level

Aline Conchon (ETUI)

2012

Just a few weeks before the launch of a new Action Plan on Company Law and Corporate Governance by Internal Market Commissioner Michel Barnier, this Policy brief seeks to review the stakeholder model of corporate governance that prevails in Europe by looking at the evolution of board-level employee representation rights in the light of national and European developments.

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Does austerity work after all? The case of Latvia

Ronald Janssen (Economic advisor, ETUC)

2012

Latvia is used by the ‘austerians’ as a case showing that hard and painful austerity can get an economy out of recession. This policy brief argues the opposite and shows that what actually happened in Latvia is that policymakers decided not to continue but to break with the policy of austerity. This made it possible for Latvia to get out of a vicious spiral of austerity causing a depression and thereby leading to even more austerity.

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Minimum wages in Europe under austerity

Thorsten Schulten (WSI)

2012

In this Policy Brief Thorsten Schulten – researcher at the WSI in the Hans-Böckler Foundation and widely acknowledged as one of Europe’s foremost expert on the subject – analyses recent trends in minimum wages across Europe in the light of the economic crisis. In most European countries, workers earning the minimum wage suffered losses – in some cases quite considerable losses – in real pay.

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Sustainable development: twofold solidarity in the world of today and tomorrow

Nadine Gouzée (Member of the Belgian Federal Planning Bureau)

2012

In the run-up to the Rio+20 Conference (20-22 June 2012) the state of play as regards sustainable development (SD) has little to show in terms of progress since the ‘Earth Summit’ held, also in Rio de Janeiro, twenty years ago. Nadine Gouzée stresses that the compartmentalization of efforts at all levels – which the critics refer to as ‘silo thinking – is the principal obstacle to achievement of an integrated form of development.

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Critical assessment of the proposed Monti II regulation – more courage and strength needed to remedy the social imbalances

Niklas Bruun (University of Helsinki) and Andreas Bücker (University of Wismar)

2012

This Policy Brief presents The Proposal for the Council Regulation submitted by the Commission in March 2012 (also known as the Monti II proposal) and conducts a critical assessment of whether it can contribute to reconciling economic freedoms and social rights.

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How has the crisis affected social legislation in Europe?

Sylvaine Laulom and Emmanuelle Mazuyer (ERDS-CERCRID), Christophe Teissier and Claude Emmanuel Triomphe (ASTREES), Pascale Vielle (UC Louvain)

2012

This Policy Brief summarises the main findings of a European project set up by the association ASTREES and the research centre ERDS-CERCRID to assess the impact of the global crisis ravaging Europe since 2008 on recent developments in social legislation in Europe.

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'Green growth' is called into question

Thomas Coutrot (Attac France) and Jean Gadrey (University Lille 1)

2012

In this Policy Brief the authors put in question the possibility, generally accepted without justification or context, of pursuing growth while respecting ‘vital’ constraints of the environment. Instead, they argue, there are credible alternative ‘post-growth’ strategies, aimed at ‘sustainable prosperity without growth’, which might be more conducive to employment and equality than the current ‘productivist’ trajectory.

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ISO 26000: The new face of corporate social responsibility?

Isabelle Schömann (ETUI)

2012

This first ETUI Policy Brief of 2012 deals with the first ISO international social standard ‘ISO 26000 – Guidance for Social Responsibility’ (GSR). The author argues, that unlike other standards, it is political rather than technical, taking on the role of organisations within society even though it is not intended for certification purposes. In addition, ISO 26000 brings about deep-seated changes aimed at altering the entire landscape of corporate social responsibility (CSR) as developed within and by the European Union.

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Monetary Union, economic coordination and democratic legitimacy

Christophe Degryse (ETUI), Philippe Pochet (ETUI)

2011

Since the outbreak of the financial, economic and budgetary crisis, we have been witnessing a potentially radical change in the mode of governance of the euro zone. Amid the state of emergency decreed by the financial markets, a series of innovations – institutional, political, procedural, etc. – have been implemented by the European and national political actors.

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Inequality, poverty and the crisis in Greece

Manos Matsaganis and Chrysa Leventi (Athens University of Economics and Business)

2011

The whole of Europe, indeed much of the world, is anxiously watching as the Greek drama unfolds. Discussions of the various austerity measures are usually couched in terms of whether they can actually be implemented by the government, or whether they will be sufficient to achieve given budgetary targets. In this ETUI Policy Brief Manos Matsaganis and Chrysa Leventi analyse an issue that has achieved much less attention: the distributional and social consequences of the austerity packages for the Greek population.

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Inequality and the crisis

Rory O’Farrell (ETUI)

2011

In this ETUI Policy Brief Rory O’Farrell looks at some of the mechanisms linking inequality and the health of the economy and reviews the evidence on how various inequality measures have changed during the crisis. He warns about measures in the context of austerity programmes that will serve to raise inequality, casting doubt on the foundations of any recovery.

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Dependency ratios and demographic change. The labour market as a key element

Josef Wöss and Erik Türk (Austrian Chamber of Labour, Vienna)

2011

Whether it is in the context of austerity policies, the EU2020 strategy, or the exigencies of competitiveness and globalisation, sooner or later the discussion comes round to ageing, pensions and retirement ages. This Policy Brief examines these demographic issues emphasising the importance of looking, not as is usually done, at the ratio of elderly persons to those of working age (demographic dependency) but rather at the number of benefit recipients (pensioners and the unemployed) compared with the number of people actually working (economic dependency).

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What role can the unions play in Europe’s industrial policy? REACH shows the way

Tony Musu (ETUI)

2011

This document looks at the example of REACH and the continuing union influence on this EU legislation on chemicals. It argues for more union involvement in the tighter control of industrial activities through binding legislation.

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Nano governance: how should the EU implement nanomaterial traceability?

Aïda Ponce Del Castillo (ETUI)

2011

This document addresses the need for a governance response from the European bodies to establish a registry of nanomaterial-containing articles.

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New skills for new jobs: scope for trade union intervention and sectoral dialogue

Jacky Fayolle (Director of the Alpha Group’s Centre for Studies and Forecasting)

2011

The purpose of this Policy Brief is to focus attention on some key issues in the New Skills for New Jobs initiative launched by the European Commission in 2008 and contribute towards a response which takes into account the balance between strengthening the basic skills of the whole working population and investment in attractive top-class training for potential talents.

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From tiger to bailout: the Irish crisis

Paula Clancy (Former director of TASC) and Tom McDonnell (TASC)

2011

The first ETUI Policy Brief European Economic and Employment Policy of 2011 is devoted to analysing the reasons behind Ireland's fall from grace, describing the treatment currently being administered, and setting out progressive policy alternatives for the future.

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Taxation in the EU: facts and policy issues

Christian Valenduc (Studies department, Ministry of Finances and Universities of Mons (FUCAM) and Louvain)

2011

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European social dialogue and transnational framework agreements as a response to the crisis?

Isabelle Schömann (ETUI), Stefan Clauwaert (ETUI)

2011

This Policy Brief attempts to overcome the knowledge gap about how European social partners or workers’ representatives have tried to contribute to facing the challenges and mitigating the (negative) implications of the crisis.

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Not for bad weather: flexicurity challenged by the crisis

Andranik Tangian (WSI-HBS and University of Karlsruhe)

2010

The third ETUI Policy Brief European Economic and Employment Policy in 2010 analyses the performance of European countries in the crisis according to their levels of flexibility and security.

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What's wrong with EU2020?

Philippe Pochet (ETUI)

2010

This Policy Brief - European Social Policy is critically assessing the Commission's 2020 strategy paper. The author addresses the main problematic aspects of the new strategy being the lack of a thorough evaluation of the preceding strategy, the absence of any real consideration of the environmental and economic crisis, the tensions and contradictions between the different aims of the strategy and its problematic provisions in terms of governance.

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How the horizontal social clause can be made to work: the lessons of gender mainstreaming

Pascale Vielle (University of Louvain-CIRTES and member of Recwowe)

2010

The author of this Policy Brief, Pascale Vielle, Lecturer at the University of Louvain, identifies the potential benefits and likely pitfalls associated with the Horizontal Social Clause in Article 9 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union in the light of the experience of the gender mainstreaming clause. She shows that only a firm commitment on the part of all relevant European actors can ensure the successful development of horizontal policies on the scale of the EU.

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EU 2020 - Social impact of the new form of European governance

Philippe Pochet (ETUI)

2010

This issue of the Policy Brief - European Social Policy concerns the strong and potentially negative impact of the new forms of monetary and economic governance on employment and on social policies.

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Towards a European recognition of public services at last? The potential impact of the Lisbon Treaty

Séverine Picard (ETUC)

2010

This issue of the Policy Brief - European Social Policy highlights the potential positive impact that the Lisbon Treaty could have on public services in Europe.

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Environmental justice and environmental inequalities: a European perspective

Eloi Laurent (OFCE)

2010

The general recommendation stemming from this policy brief is a demanding one: European social policies can no longer disregard the impacts, in terms of health, socio-economic conditions and wellbeing, which result from environmental conditions and policies.

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The harsher employment effects of a necessary paradigm shift in climate policy will need active transition management

Béla Galgóczi (ETUI)

2010

There is a consensus in Europe that reversing climate change is the overall policy priority for the coming decades. Yet while Europe has set itself ambitious targets, the policy framework at the European level is fragmented, ambiguous, incomplete and uncoordinated.

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Here today, gone tomorrow: the rise in earnings fluctuations and its policy implications

Tomas Korpi (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University)

2010

The widespread trend towards greater social inequality increasingly, if belatedly, became a policy preoccupation in the years immediately preceding the outbreak of the crisis.

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Environmental fiscal reform in Europe: research, experience and best practice

Jacqueline Cottrell, Rachel Mander, Sebastian Schmidt and Kai Schlegelmilch (Green Budget Germany/Forum Ökologisch-Soziale Marktwirtschaft e.V)

2010

Europe needs to create jobs and growth and put its fiscal house in order to emerge successfully from the economic crisis. It also needs to make progress on restructuring its economy so as to achieve the ambitious climate-protection goals that the EU has set itself.

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Growth-friendly fiscal consolidation

Franz Nauschnigg (Austrian National Bank)

2010

In the aftermath of the most serious economic and financial crisis since the Great Depression, governments of most EU countries are confronted with both substantial fiscal deficits and high and rising public debt levels.

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Europe needs fair and transparent debt work-out mechanisms: lessons from the Icelandic case

Koos de Bruijn, Jürgen Kaiser, Nick Dearden, Øygunn Brynildsen and Nuria Molina (EURODAD)

2010

Debt difficulties currently faced by Iceland and other European countries give rise to new debates among European decision-makers on how to identify causes and responsibilities in the context of sovereign debt crises and how to find efficient solutions to the problems arising.

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Collective bargaining responses to the economic crisis in Europe

Vera Glassner (ETUI)

2010

This Policy Brief provides an overview of collective bargaining responses to the crisis in Europe. It shows clearly that collective bargaining has proven to be an effective instrument to maintain employment and to allow companies to find flexible solutions to deal with the steep economic downturn.

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The Lisbon Treaty: a more social Europe at last?

Isabelle Schömann (ETUI)

2010

This ETUI Policy Brief on social policy in Europe looks into the social dimension of the recently ratified Lisbon Treaty. Although it was widely expected that the Treaty will strengthen social Europe, the author demonstrates that it only partly lives up to these expectations and is very much lacking in ambition in this respect.

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The Better Regulation agenda: a ‘new deal’ in the building of Europe

Eric van den Abeele (OSE and University of Mons-Hainaut)

2009

Scrutiny of the Better Regulation agenda reveals the European Commission’s use of doublespeak. Feigning a concern for modernisation, simplification and improvement of the quality of Community regulation, the Commission has embarked, with the help of the Council and the tacit approval of the European Parliament, on an insidious enterprise to deregulate the Community acquis.

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Public and private pensions: lessons from the crisis

Agnes Streissler (Austrian economist and owner of an economic policy consultancy)

2009

This Policy Brief considers the lessons to be drawn from the crisis for both public and private pensions in Europe.

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Light shades of green - Climate-friendly policies in times of crisis

Mariya Nikolova (ETUI)

2009

This Policy Brief considers how ‘green’ the anti-crisis stimulus packages adopted in Europe have been. The crisis is widely seen as representing an opportunity to begin the necessary shift toward a low-carbon economy.

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Central Eastern Europe five years after: from 'emerging Europe' to 'submerging' Europe?

Béla Galgóczi (ETUI)

2009

In this, the fourth ETUI Policy Brief in 2009, the impact of the economic and financial crisis on Central and Eastern Europe is examined. Five years after EU enlargement, the new member states have been hit hard, contrary to initial hopes that their previous strong growth would make them immune.

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Minimum wages in Europe: new debates against the background of economic crisis

Thorsten Schulten (WSI-HBS)

2009

The minimum wage is a standard and generally accepted tool of labour market regulation in most European countries. Since the start of the new millennium, the real value of minimum wages has substantially increased, acting in many cases as a spur to general wage developments.

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Plant-level responses to the crisis: can jobs be saved by working less ?

Béla Galgóczi (ETUI), Vera Glassner (ETUI)

2009

Statutory labour market instruments to support shortened working time at companies hit by the crisis, often interacting with collective agreements, have proved to be an effective instrument to cushion the employment impact of the crisis in a number of European countries.

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No-vacation nation USA - a comparison of leave and holiday in OECD countries

Rebecca Ray and John Schmitt (Center for Economic and Policy Research)

2007

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The 2007 European challenge: taking world leadership for smart growth

Iain Begg (LSE) and Allan Larsson (Lund University)

2007

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