European Trade Union Institute, ETUI.

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Reports

Technical documents aimed at a specialist audience; may also present results from a conference or project results.

The European pillar of social rights: critical legal analysis and proposals

Klaus Lörcher and Isabelle Schömann (ETUI)

2016
pillar of social rights ETUI

The aim of the present paper is to provide a basis for an in-depth discussion of the European Commission’s initiative for a ‘European Pillar of Social Rights’ by briefly examining its context. The content of the Commission’s Communication is reviewed and followed by a more detailed analysis of the rights listed in the Annex of the Communication.

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Reprotoxins that should be subject to limit values for workers’ exposure

Henning Wriedt (Occupational Health & Safety Advice Centre, Hamburg, Germany)

2016

The objective of this project is the identification of substances toxic to reproduction (in short: reprotoxins) which are relevant for workers’ exposure via inhalation at a considerable number of workplaces in Europe and, thus, for which an indicative occupational exposure limit value (IOELV) under the Chemical Agents Directive (CAD) might be suggested.

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Too little, too late? Evaluating the European Works Councils Recast Directive

Stan De Spiegelaere (ETUI)

2016
European Works Councils report

This report analyses the effectiveness of the EWC Recast Directive in contributing to the establishment of (1) more EWCs and (2) better EWCs.

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Carcinogens that should be subject to binding limits on workers’ exposure

Henning Wriedt (Occupational Health & Safety Advice Centre, Hamburg, Germany)

2016
carcinogens report

The objective of this publication is the identification of at least 70 carcinogens that are relevant for workers’ exposure via inhalation at a considerable number of workplaces in Europe and thus, for which a Binding Occupational Exposure Limits (BOEL) under the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive (CMD) might be suggested.

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Workers’ voice in corporate governance. A European perspective

Aline Conchon (ETUI)

2015
worker participation

This report sets out the situation in relation to worker voice in corporate governance across Europe. It examines the differences and similarities in provisions on worker representation in corporate governance in different European countries, as well as EU regulations and Directives on the subject.

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Health care reforms and the crisis

Furio Stamati (OSE) and Rita Baeten (OSE)

2015
health care reforms report

This report looks at the impact of the crisis on health care reform patterns in ten EU countries (France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden and the UK-England). It assesses the changing allocation of responsibilities for regulation, financing, and provision of health care, as well as the growing influence of EU governance on national health systems.

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European trade unionism: from crisis to renewal?

Magdalena Bernaciak (ETUI), Rebecca Gumbrell-McCormick and Richard Hyman

2014

This report by ETUI researcher Magda Bernaciak, Rebecca Gumbrell-McCormick (University of London) and Richard Hyman (London School of Economics) looks at how the diversity of European ‘trade unionisms’ leads to a diversity of challenges

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Nordic labour market models in open markets

Søren Kaj Andersen, Jon Erik Dølvik and Christian Lyhne Ibsen

2014
Nordic labour market models

This report reviews the main common traits and variations of the Nordic models of labour market regulation, how they were adjusted after the crises in the 1980-90s, and how recent labour market developments have faced the actors with new challenges.

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Vocational education and training and the Great Recession: supporting young people in a time of crisis

Jason Heyes

2014

The report provides a detailed overview of several European countries and their VET policies before and after the onset of the crisis. It sets outs to answer the following questions: How have EU member states responded to the dire economic and social situation and to the international call to improve IVET opportunities for young people? Has the crisis provoked a convergence of strategies across member states? Have the changed circumstances altered the governance of VET institutions, or the actors involved?

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Wages and collective bargaining during the European economic crisis

Thorsten Schulten (WSI) and Torsten Müller (ETUI)

2014

The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of the crisis on wage developments and collective bargaining in European manufacturing industry.

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Public funding for green energy in a context of crisis

Mike Scott (Freelance journalist)

2013

This summary report looks at how the financial and economic crisis has affected financial support by public authorities for renewable energy in six EU countries (Germany, Spain, Italy, UK, Sweden and Bulgaria).

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Minimum wages in Europe: does the diversity of systems lead to a diversity of outcomes?

Stephan Kampelmann, Andrea Garnero and François Rycx

2013

This report by three academic experts leaves the beaten track of minimum wage analysis by focussing on the institutional diversity of minimum wage systems within the EU. The central message of the report is that both the academic and the policymaking community could render the European minimum wage debate more relevant if they framed the current discussion as a choice between alternative systems rather than a choice of any particular rate for Europe as a whole.

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Transnational company agreements and the role of European Works Councils in negotiations

Torsten Müller (ETUI), Hans-Wolfgang Platzer (University of Fulda) and Stefan Rüb (University of Fulda)

2013

As a rule, the competences of European Works Councils (EWCs) are limited to information and consultation. Nonetheless, the number of European company-level framework agreements negotiated by EWCs and/or trade unions has increased steadily since the early 2000s. By the end of 2011, 119 such agreements had been concluded.

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Young people at risk: how changes in work are affecting young Italians' health and safety

Daniele Di Nunzio (Istituto di Ricerche Economiche e Sociali - IRES)

2013

This report looks at the problems young people have getting a job in Italy, and the particularly poor employment and working conditions of those who do manage to get one.

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German and British labour law in a European context following European Union enlargement

Rebecca Zahn (University of Stirling)

2013

This report examines and compares German and British trade union responses, in a European context, to the European Union enlargements in 2004 and 2007. The author argues that given that their different responses to the similar problems they face such as declining membership and losing influence in collective relations produced different outcomes, they could learn from each other's experiences and would benefit from a comparison.

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Temporary agency work in the European Union

Isabelle Schömann (ETUI) and Coralie Guedes (University of Lyon)

2012

Starting with a general overview on domestic transposition measures of Directive 2008/104/CE on temporary agency work, the report then looks at the state of transposition in more detail, article by article.

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Who earns minimum wages in Europe?

François Rycx (Associate Professor at the ULB/DULBEA) and Stephan Kampelmann (Associated researcher ULB/DULBEA)

2012

Minimum wages continue to stir controversial policy debates. This study contributes to a better understanding of minimum wages by providing a solid empirical assessment of minimum wage policies and their socio-economic consequences for a range of European countries.

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Trade unions in Poland

Juliusz Gardawski (Warsaw School of Economics), Adam Mrozowicki (Univ. Wrocław) and Jan Czarzasty (Warsaw School of Economics)

2012

This report on the trade union landscape in Poland forms part of a wide-ranging project, initiated and coordinated by the ETUI, which aims to map changes in unionisation and the varying organisational structures of unions in the ‘new member states’ of the European Union.

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Women and occupational diseases. The case of Belgium

Laurent Vogel (ETUI)

2011

This report highlights the discriminatory impact on women of the system for the declaration and recognition of occupational diseases in Belgium.

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Board-level employee representation rights in Europe

Aline Conchon (ETUI)

2011

17 European Member States and Norway have enacted legal provisions allowing for employee representation, with voting rights, on the supervisory board and/or board of directors of companies headquartered on their national territory. Additional provisions regulating Board-level employee representation [BLER] are to be found in several pieces of European company law. Even so, BLER remains a hotly debated topic at both national and European levels.

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Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems - When are they good for your health?

Viktor Kempa (ETUI)

2011

In the course of trade union debates, occupational health and safety management systems elicit extremely varied responses, running from indignant rejection to enthusiasm. The report surveys this booming "market". Much as they may prompt employers to engage with health and safety at work, the authors take issue with these management systems for seeming to look more for accident risks than long-term health risks.

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Women and occupational diseases in the European Union

Daniela Tieves (Guest researcher, ETUI)

2011

Daniela Tieves' report builds on a body of work done by our institute on the link between the struggle for equality and health at work.

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EU and national company law – fixation on attractiveness

Jan Cremers and Elwin Wolters (AIAS)

2011

This report, based on research done by ETUI’s SEEurope network, investigates the introduction of more simplified national company legislation and the instigation of more competition between Member States.

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Temporary agency work - guide for transposition at national level

Wiebke Warneck

2011
rapport 117 cover

This interpretation guide is intended to provide help in the implementation process of the Temporary Agency Work Directive (2008/104/EC) at the national level. It is a tool designed to assist an understanding of the context of certain articles and which seeks to raise awareness of key points for consideration in transposing the Directive. Further, it sets out to highlight likely problems and pitfalls, focusing on a number of relevant national examples. The overall aim is to further the efforts to achieve the best possible transposition from a trade union point of view.

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Better regulation: a critical assessment

Laurent Vogel (ETUI)

2010

This report is on the European Commission's "better regulation" programme. The Commission is promising that scrapping or revising a number of directives will save businesses around 40 billion euros by reducing the "administrative formalities" they impose. In this report, the authors reveal the agenda within the agenda.

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The European union's better regulation agenda

Eric Van den Abeele (University of Mons-Hainaut, Belgium)

2010

This report explains the ins and outs of the Better Regulation agenda, and answers many of the questions raised by this programme that it is claimed will improve the EU’s legislative framework.

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Trade unions in the Czech Republic

Martin Myant (Professor at the University of the West of Scotland)

2010
trade union Czech Republic

This report forms part of a wide-ranging ETUI project, which aims to map changes in unionisation and the varying organizational structures of unions in the ‘new member states’ of the EU. The author demonstrates convincingly that the recent development of the union movement was heavily conditioned by its history which explains the apparently decentralized structure of the Czech labour movement. Despite the substantial decline in membership, unions have an improved knowledge of how to get the best results from enterprise-level bargaining and an improved ability to exercise influence at the national level.

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GATS and the EU: impacts on labour markets and regulatory capacity

Andrew Watt (ETUI)

2010

This study, which was funded by a grant from the Hans Böckler Foundation, addresses actual and expected impacts of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) on both European labour markets and governments’ regulatory capacity. As such it touches on a number of crucial issues that have been at the centre of debate and controversy in recent years. The study constructs own indicators for the degree of opening of labour markets under the GATS for each EU Member State. These are then used to make a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the actual and expected impact of cross border services trade under both Mode 3 and Mode 4 of the GATS framework. On basis of this analysis, the authors reflect on possible policy responses by national governments, trade unions and other social actors.

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European Works Councils: a trade union guide to directive 2009/38/EC

Séverine Picard (ETUC Legal Advisor)

2010

This guide has been developed by the ETUC in order to help trade unionists and practitioners in the area of information and consultation around Europe to play an active role in this process and to make the most of the new provisions in the European Works Council Directive as amended by Directive 2009/38/EC. It is an article-by-article legal commentary, written in an accessible style so that it can be used by everybody with interest in European Works Councils and their functioning.

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Viking - Laval - Rüffert: consequences and policy perspectives

Andreas Bücker and Wiebke Warneck

2010

The Viking-Laval – Rüffert cases raise the question of the relationship between market freedoms and fundamental social rights, with a particular focus on the freedom of association, the right to collective bargaining and the right to strike. In its rulings on these cases the ECJ has put in question the traditional relationship between market freedoms on a European level and national systems of industrial relations.

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Climate change, the environment and jobs in UNI europa's sectors

Sophie Dupressoir

2009

This report aims to explore the future of employment in the European service industry from a sustainable development perspective, particularly in an environmental sense of the word. It also aims, based on best practices, to propose avenues for initiating social dialogue in services on environmental issues.

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Better defending and promoting trade union rights in the public sector

Wiebke Warneck and Stefan Clauwaert

2009

This publication is the second part of a wider report covering trade union rights in the public sector. It provides information on trade union rights in the public sector country-by-country.The information is sourced from case law emanating from the European Committee of Social Rights (ECSR) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO) as well as information on trade union rights violations from the International Confedration of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC).

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Trade unions in Malta

Godfrey Baldacchino

2009

This report on Maltese trade unions forms part of a wide-ranging ETUI project which aims to map changes in unionisation and the varying organisational structures of unions in the ‘New Member States’ (NMS). The author, Godfrey Baldacchino, indicates that Maltese trade unions still enjoy significant membership rates. More than one in two workers in Malta is a trade union member, one of the highest unionisation rates in the EU. The two main trade unions have seen the rise of different sections in their internal structures, while their dominance has been weakened.

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The impact of safety representatives on occupational health

María Menéndez (Occupational Health Department, CC.OO, Spain), Joan Benach (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain) and Laurent Vogel (ETUI)

2009

Does the presence of union officials in a workplace actually help to improve safety and health protection for workers?

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Codes de conduite et accords-cadres internationaux

Isabelle Schömann (ETUI)

2008

In recent years, the rapid process of globalisation has triggered a political debate on international working and production standards, and the need for supranational structures and regulation. The adoption of corporate codes of conduct and international framework agreements (IFAs) is a reflection of the increasing global outreach and influence of multinational companies.

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Better defending and promoting trade union rights in the public sector

Wiebke Warneck and Stefan Clauwaert

2008

Designed as a campaign-oriented, practical tool, the report maps out the current situation with regard to the application of and respect for trade union rights in the public sector across Europe.

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Services employment in Europe

Gintare Kemekliene, Heather Connolly, Maarten Keune and Andrew Watt

2007

The service sector is the biggest employer in the EU and is also the main source of new jobs in European economies. Furthermore employment in the service sector will continue to grow as a share of total employment. This publication outlines the impact the rise of the service sector has had on employment and some of the challenges and opportunities that are facing trade unions as a result.

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Strike rules in the EU27 and beyond

Wiebke Warneck

2007

Collective action is, still today, very much linked to the highly specific national industrial relations systems which means that trade unions in Europe have to act within the national “legislative” boundaries, while seeking to coordinate national actions on a trans-national scale in such a way that they acquire a European impact.

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Board-level participation and workers' financial participation in Europe

Norbert Kluge and Peter Wilke

2007

With the Lisbon strategy of 2000, Europe set itself ambitious economic and political goals. Within the framework of a ten-year strategy, the European Council wants to make the EU into the most dynamic and competitive economic area in the world.

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Facing the demographic changes

Maria Jepsen (ETUI)

2006

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Pension reform in Slovakia

Ivan Lesay (Slovak Academy of Science)

2006

This paper presents an analysis of the pension system reform in Slovakia. The author briefly surveys the basic features of the pension system before and after the reform, discussing the reasons for the reform as well as its risks and possible social impact. After presentation of an alternative system and also general measures for improvement, a final focus is on the pension reforms in the eight CEE new member states and on welfare state retrenchment in the post-Communist region.

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European sectoral social dialogue 1997-2004

Philippe Pochet, Anne Dufresne, Christophe Degryse and Dominique Jadot (OSE)

2006

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Information and consultation in the European Community

Isabelle Schömann, Stefan Clauwaert and Wiebke Warneck (ETUI)

2006

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What makes a good company?

Janja Bedrač (University of Maribor, Slovenia)

2006

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Women in trade unions

Homa Dean

2006

Gender equality is a fundamental right in the European Union. Increasingly, research is showing that women are a necessary factor in achieving the European Union's objectives of growth, employment and social cohesion. As women begin to make up a greater proportion of the workforce, trade unions are beginning to realise the benefits that women can bring to their structures in terms of increased membership and diversity.

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What price the euro? Summary

Béla Galgóczi (ETUI)

2006

The analysis shows that, due to the specific macroeconomic conditions and transformational character of the new CEE member states, the nominal criteria of the Stability and Growth Pact are, when applied to these countries, more stringent than for the present euro-zone members. What is more, on account of the new member states' higher social risks and less developed economic activity, these criteria are also highly inappropriate.

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European Works Councils - Facts and Figures 2006

Peter Kerckhofs

2006

A few hundred giant multinational firms control major shares of the international economy. The decisions taken by central management of these multinational companies affect workers in all their European subsidiaries. The European Directive on European Works Councils (EWCs), requires multinational companies to build a bridge between their decision-making centre and European workers' representatives.

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The European Company - Prospects for worker board-level participation in the enlarged EU

Michael Stollt (ETUI)

2006

This booklet provides information on different aspects of the European Company (SE) such as the question of worker involvement, the national transposition processes and taxation aspects. Moreover, information is given on the development and the different national systems of worker participation on supervisory or administrative boards throughout the European Union.

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The impact of REACH on occupational health with a focus on skin and respiratory diseases

Simon Pickvance, Jon Karnon, Jean Peters and Karen El-Arifi (University of Sheffield)

2005

The study on how REACH will benefit workers' health was done by researchers from the University of Sheffield, looking chiefly at respiratory and skin diseases.

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Musculoskeletal disorders and work organisation in the European clothing industry

Jeremy Hague,Lynn Oxborrow and Lynn McAtamney (Centre for Work and Technology, Nottingham Trent University)

2001

This report offers a comprehensive review of existing scientific knowledge related to MSD in the textile and clothing industry. It also examines organizational changes in the sector, considering established and emerging health and safety issues.

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Occupational health in central government administration

Laurent Vogel (ETUI)

1999

This report is looking at what effects the Framework Directive 1989 had produced in the central civil service of four countries - Austria, Spain, France and United Kingdom - through a comparative study of selected aspects.

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Focus

  • European trade unionism: from crisis to renewal?

    Magdalena Bernaciak (ETUI), Rebecca Gumbrell-McCormick and Richard Hyman

    This report by ETUI researcher Magda Bernaciak, Rebecca Gumbrell-McCormick (University of London) and Richard Hyman (London School of Economics) looks at how the diversity of European ‘trade unionisms’ leads to a diversity of challenges