European Trade Union Institute, ETUI.



Jörg Bibow 03/2020

The euro has failed to deliver on its promises. While the euro area’s performance during the euro’s first decade was mediocre, things turned truly dismal when the global fi nancial crisis of 2007–2009 struck. In contrast to the rest of the world, which started to recover from the crisis in 2010, the euro area suffered a ‘double-dip’ recession. This study evaluates the ECB’s unconventional monetary policies and its role as euro crisis...


Edited by Bart Vanhercke, Dalila Ghailani and Slavina Spasova with Philippe Pochet 03/2020

This anniversary edition looks back at the main developments in EU social policymaking over the past two decades. Key questions addressed in this volume include: What was the place of the social dimension during the financial and economic crisis? Who has driven, and who has braked, EU social policymaking? Which instruments does the EU have at its disposal for ‘market correcting’ policies? And last but not least, what are the next ste...


Edited by Maarten Keune, Nuria Elena Ramos Martín and Mikkel Mailand 02/2020

Public sector workers have frequently had to shoulder the burden of budgetary pressures through declining employment levels and job quality, including stagnating or declining (real) wages and the intensification and ‘extensification’ of work. Declines in the number of jobs and job quality have been strongest in the countries where the crisis has been felt the deepest, in particular Italy and Spain. However, in the last few years, the...


Aïda Ponce Del Castillo 02/2020

Labour in the age of AI: why regulation is needed to protect workers

AI, along with other new technologies such as robotics, machine learning and blockchain, will disrupt life as we know it. If Europe develops regulation according to its values and, in particular, ensures the protection of workers, it can become a genuine global player and win the AI race while remaining faithful to its democratic identity.


Simon Joyce, Denis Neumann, Vera Trappmann and Charles Umney 02/2020

The main cause globally for labour protest is pay, with considerable geographical variation when it comes to other causes for dispute. Types of platform labour protest appear to vary more substantially between regions than between industries. Mainstream unions play a vital role in defending platform workers’ interests, especially in western Europe, while in the global South, protests are much more likely to be led by grassroots union...


Torsten Müller (ETUI) and Thorsten Schulten (WSI) 02/2020

The European Commission published a consultation document with a view to take legislative action to establish fair minimum wages in Europe. In this policy brief, the researchers argue for a pragmatic approach of taking the ‘in-work-poverty-wage’ threshold of 60 per cent of the national full-time gross median wage as the reference to assess the adequacy of minimum wages.


Edited by Zane Rasnača and Magdalena Bernaciak 01/2020

Posting of workers before national courts

Intra-EU employee posting remains a politically and legally contentious matter that continues to feature on the agendas of lawmakers, trade unions and researchers alike. Numerous cases brought before the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), as well as recent and ongoing revisions of the posting-related EU legal framework, suggest that problems are arising from clashing legal competences, weak enforcement and the breach and/...


Edited by Stan De Spiegelaere and Romuald Jagodzinski 12/2019


A unique survey data that gives an insight into the functioning of European Works councils (EWC) from the perspective of employee representatives. This publication presents the results of the largest survey of EWC representatives conducted to date. The survey documents the opinions on a wide range of topics of more than 1,600 employee representatives from all EU countries representing over 300 different EWCs and provides a graphical...


Nacho Álvarez, Georg Feigl, Nasos Koratzanis, Markus Marterbauer, Catherine Mathieu, Tom McDonne... 12/2019

Starting from the view that the crises in the euro zone were basically triggered by financial markets and reinforced by a lack of instruments for effective economic policy at the EMU level (Economic and Monetary Union), this working paper contributes to the ongoing debate on how to reform the Eurozone.


Agnieszka Piasna 12/2019

The objective is to map the extent of digital labour in central and eastern Europe (CEE) based on the analysis of two types of online sources for generating income: internet work; and its subset, platform work.


Edited by Béla Galgóczi (ETUI) 11/2019

Book - Towards a just transition Galgóczi

The role of trade unions and social dialogue is key in demonstrating the major differences between coal-based energy generation and the automobile industry. This book presents two faces of a just transition towards a net-zero carbon economy by drawing lessons from these two carbon-intensive sectors.


How the COVID-19 crisis offers lessons for dealing with the climate crisis

27 March 2020

The unprecedented pandemic that has changed our daily lives, our work and the entire economy from one day to another is, and will remain, the number one priority for policymakers and social partners in the foreseeable future. Everything needs to be done now to slow down the exponential spread of the virus and empower our healthcare systems to cope with the health emergency. At the same time, urgent measures are needed to fend off the damage caused by the shutdown of the economy and to protect workers in this extraordinary situation.


England: rise in poor-quality work a key factor in the deterioration of public health

25 March 2020

“England is faltering,” declares the opening lines of the Marmot Review of Health Equity in England, published in February 2020 and coordinated by esteemed epidemiologist Sir Michael Marmot, Director of the Institute of Health Equity. The life expectancy rate, which, alongside continuous improvements in health, had been rising steadily since the beginning of the twentieth century, has been slowing down since 2011 to an extent not witnessed for 120 years: a phenomenon not seen anywhere else in Europe. In the most deprived communities outside London it actually fell for part of the decade 2010-2020.


Twenty years of European social policy: a “long and winding road”

24 March 2020

The recently published Social Policy in the European Union is the twentieth edition of this joint ETUI and European Social Observatory (OSE) publication. A conference took place on 12 March 2020 at the ETUI to celebrate the occasion. The publication has had different editors since its first edition in 1999 but it has always delivered an invaluable analysis of social policy at the European level, according to Bart Vanhercke, Director of the OSE and one of the editors of the current edition. Philippe Pochet, General Director of the ETUI and the first editor of the series, added that the publication not only looks at social policy in the strict sense but also at the social implications of economic policy and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice (ECJ). It is important to understand how something that happens in one domain at EU level influences other policies, he said. Dalila Ghailani, senior researcher at OSE and co-editor of this publication, gave a presentation of the content of this year’s volume.


Revising the machinery directive: beware of visionary projections

18 March 2020

Experts who have an interest in safety at work welcome the European Commission's current efforts to analyse and possibly improve the performance of the Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC as part of its regulatory fitness and performance (REFIT) programme. The Machinery Directive is a very important and successful instrument for European industry, and many believe its basic approach must be left unchanged. While everybody agrees that some changes are needed, massive changes of the Machinery Directive, in particular to the Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSRs) in Annex I, might have a deep negative impact on the work of developing harmonised standards and should be avoided.


France: Uber drivers are employees, says the French Court of Cassation

9 March 2020

On 4 March 2020, the French Court of Cassation ruled in favour of reclassifying the contractual relationship between Uber and one of its drivers. This is the second court ruling in France in favour of platform workers, coming in the wake of the one concerning Take Eat Easy, a former food delivery company.


Collective Bargaining newsletter February 2020

5 March 2020

Please find below the highlights of the February issue of the Collective Bargaining newsletter with the most important developments at European and member state level over the past month.


Climate change: a trade union issue, also in south-east Europe

28 February 2020

The latest issue of the SEER Journal for Labour and Social Afffairs in Eastern Europe takes up for the first time the topic of climate change and related policy initiatives in the region. This subject has not been at the centre of policy debates in this part of Europe but given the priority of the matter in global, and more specifically, the European context, its policy relevance will certainly grow.


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  • Unions and coronavirus

    The ETUI logo is also social distancing, keeping the distance between each other now to get closer together after the crisis. Millions of workers are experiencing many difficulties in their lives and in making a living caused by measures to tackle the pandemic. The ETUI will contribute to the common effort by offering its expertise in the service of workers’ interests and produce original contents related to the global fight against the pandemic.
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About ETUI

The European Trade Union Institute is the independent research and training centre of the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) which itself affiliates European trade unions into a single European umbrella organisation. The ETUI places its expertise – acquired in particular in the context of its links with universities, academic and expert networks – in the service of workers’ interests at European level and of the strengthening of the social dimension of the European Union. Read more