European Trade Union Institute, ETUI.

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Labour mobility

Figure 2.21 EU citizens of working age (20–64) living in another Member State, by country of citizenship (in percentage of the home country population for this age group)


Intra-EU labour mobility stilldriven by east-west movements

Structural free movement and residence are a basic freedom of all EU citizens and the expectation is that cross-border labour mobility can contribute to a better functioning of European labour markets. 

In 2017, 12.4 million EU28 citizens of working age (15–64) lived in another EU Member State (3.8% of the total working-age population of the EU28), up from 7.9 million in 2007. Although this is a significant increase, when compared internationally even the higher 2017 value is low (for example, yearly inter-state labour flows in the US were seven times higher relative to the population size, see OECD (2016)).

more information in  Benchmarking Working Europe 2019 - Chapter 2 Labour market and social developments

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Employment , Labour law , Mobility


Mehmet Koksal

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