European Trade Union Institute, ETUI.

Accueil > Outils > Facts & Figures > Benchmarks > Overview of labour market developments

Overview of labour market developments

Description

Uneven recovery

Employment has continued to grow in the EU (Figure 2.1). In 2018q2, the employment rate was at an all-time high of 68.6%. This is a considerable improvement compared to the peak of the crisis (64.1% in 2013) and also surpasses the pre-crisis level of 65.9%. For the male population, however, the past 10 years were very much a lost decade, with the employment rate only moving from 72.9% in 2008 to 73.8% in 2018. Female employment, on the other hand, stagnated during the crisis but then increased by 4.6 pp between 2013 and 2018. There was a less impressive increase in youth employment (15-24), which was still below pre-crisis levels in 2018, at 35.1%. Among older workers (55-64) the employment rate rose from 45.6% in 2008 to 58.6% in 2018, which can in part be attributed to a reduced access to early retirement schemes and a postponement of the retiremen tage. Workers with the lowest educational attainment levels persistently show low participation rates in the labour market, with their employment rate just above 46% in 2018, still below the pre-crisis level of 47.9%.

More atypical jobs

The part-time employment rate rose to 19.3% in the EU28 in 2018, from 17.6% in 2008 (Figure 2.1). Part-time work is more prevalent among women, but the increase in the rate slowed down, reaching 31.5% in 2018, while it continued for men, rising to 8.9% in 2018. The temporary employment rate was also higher among women (14.9%) than men(13.8%) in 2018. The self-employment rate suffered a decline over the past five years, dropping from 14.5% in 2013 to 13.6% in 2018. Only a minority of self-employed workers are employers, while the majority consists of own-account workers. Their share in total employment was 9.7% in 2018.

Disaggregation of the net job growth into forms of employment (Figure 2.2) shows to what extent non-standard work has overtaken standard employment. Part-time jobs increased the most in relative terms, by nearly 13% since 2008, followed by temporary employment, which grew by nearly 5% in the same period. Own-account workers, however, increased by only 1%. Meanwhile, the overall number of jobs in the EU28 increased by 2.4% in the past decade.

Share this :

Date of publication
2019
Themes
Emploi , Genre

Keywords

Emploi , Genre

Related Facts & Figures