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This report provides an overview of the ways in which EU and EEA Member States have regulated the immigration of third-country nationals who enter their territory for the purpose of work. Its focus is on short-term migrant workers and it presents the results of an extensive mapping exercise carried out by national experts from 23 EU and two EEA countries in collaboration with the ETUI. The focus was on the interaction between national immigration law regimes and labour market access, as well as the employment rights of different categories of short-term third-country-national workers, depending on their immigration status. Special emphasis was placed on certain categories of workers discussed most often in the context of EU mobility, namely, seasonal workers, temporary agency workers and posted workers from third countries.

In comparison with the local workforce, third-country national workers, especially short-term, find themselves in a more vulnerable situation because of the dependence of their labour market status on their immigration status. This report explores the immigration pathways available to third-country national workers and provides an overview of the conditions for short-term workers’ entry, stay and leave in each national system, depending on category. It then looks at these workers’ general working conditions as regulated by national law.

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Table of contents

Interaction between labour law and immigration regimes-2023.pdf