This is the ninth cycle under the European Semester system since its launch in 2011, but it is also the second set of CSRs launched since the proclamation of the European Pillar of Social Rights (EPSR) in November 2017. This year, a total of 96 of what could be called ‘package’ recommendations (as they often contain several sub-recommendations) were delivered to 28 Member States concerning the fields of: public finance and financial sector regulation; structural reforms in areas such as research and development and energy efficiency; employment and social policies, such as active labour market policies (ALMPs); employment protection legislation; social security and assistance systems/benefits; and collective bargaining and wage-setting mechanisms. This year’s buzzword is ‘investment, investment and investment’.

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