It has almost become a cliché to say that the Covid-19 pandemic has exacerbated pre-existing inequalities while also generating new ones. However, the following pages of this year’s Benchmarking Working Europe clearly reveal that, far from being a platitude, the nexus between the pandemic and rising inequalities is both increasingly measurable and alarming. But they also stress that inequality is not just a one-off historical incident linked to a particular crisis. It is in fact the product of an economic model that, for the past three decades, has progressively redistributed less and less wealth to the bottom percentiles of society, while accumulating more and more at the top. In other words, it is a structural problem. Given the corrosive impact that inequalities are having on the social and economic, let alone political and democratic, fabric of our societies, the policy responses to the problem of inequality must be equally structural in character. 

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Table of contents

Benchmarking Working Europe 2021 full.pdf


0000-Bench21-Key messages.pdf

00-Bench21-Unequal Europe_2021

01-Bench21-Macroeconomic and financial developments and policies in the EU in 2021.pdf

02-Bench21-Labour market and social developments crisis further entrenches inequality.pdf

03-Bench21-Wages and collective bargaining is social Europe really back on the agenda.pdf

04-Bench21-The inequality pyramid of climate change and mitigation.pdf

05-Bench21-Occupational health and safety inequalities in the EU.pdf

06-Bench21-Industrial democracy and inequality.pdf

07-Bench21-Towards a societal resilience.pdf


09-Bench21-List of authors.pdf

10-Bench21-List of figures.pdf