Our planetary limits demand a radical transition from the energy-intensive economic model based on the extraction of finite resources, which has been dominant since the first industrial revolution, to a model that is both sustainable and equitable.

Unfortunately however, energy transformation in Europe has, after a promising start, fallen hostage to austerity and to the main philosophy underpinning the crisis management policies in which overall competitiveness is reduced to the much narrower concept of cost-competitiveness. Regulatory uncertainty, design failures built into incentive systems, and unjust distribution of the costs, have also contributed to the reversal of progress in energy transformation currently observable across Europe.

In this book three country case studies highlight the different facets of these conflicts, while additional light is thrown on the situation by an account of the lack of progress in achieving energy efficiency.

By way of conclusion, a mapping of the main conflicts and obstacles to progress will be of help in formulating policy recommendations. Ambitious climate and energy policy targets should be regarded not as a burden on the economy but rather as investment targets able to pave the way to higher employment and sustainable growth. It is high time for this perception to be recognised and implemented in the context of Europe’s new Investment Plan, thereby enabling clean energy investment to come to form its central pillar. A shift in this direction will require an overhaul of the regulatory and incentive systems to ensure that the need for just burden-sharing is adequately taken into account.

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Table of contents

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Béla Galgóczi: Introduction - Energy transformation under pressure

Sylvia Borbonus: The German Energiewende under pressure

Tommaso Rondinella and Elena Grimaccia: How austerity put a brake on the energy transformation in Italy

Marco Torregrossa: Energy-efficiency investment with special regard to the retrofitting of buildings in Europe

Sven Hergovitch and Miriam Paprsek: Tapping the job potential of green investments in Europe

Béla Galgóczi: Conclusions

Bruno Estrada López: Energy transformation under the pressure of austerity: the case of Spain

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